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Afghan Geodesy and Cartography history

Before establishment of Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (HGCHO) as an independent office, agricultural land has been measured with chain to find the land area of owner. Topographic affairs has done by military officers with very easy rules , with establishment of AGCHO topography of small area started by using large scale 1/5and 1/10 thousand and the instrument was tables tripod and site rule .
After that in geodetic field the leveling and Triangulation started with basic rules and regulation but Photogrammetry and Cartography section were not activated.
Later on after passing time for development and public project felt much need for large scale topographic maps. According to this need Cartography vocational school established in 1955. With graduation of first group students of Topography school the present Geodesy and Cartography Head office under name of the Cartography organization was established in 1958.
With establishment of Cartography Organization, topographic affaires of large and small area curried out using table, tripod and site rule, and compiled maps of 1/10000 up to 1/500000 scale. And also basic and accurate leveling and triangulation started after establishment of the Cartography Office.

Cadastral Survey:
Cadastral survey base put down like a development project of government, with establishment of Cadastral survey vocational school in the Kandahar province in year 1963. After graduation of first group of Cadastral survey school from 12th class, Cadastral survey Organization established officially under frame work of finance ministry and started to work. And also some times work with interior ministry.
Therefore cadastral survey is a branch of map production and also cadastral survey need geodetic control point to do survey affaires, and also could use modern instrument of geodesy, cartography and photogrammetry, jointed with cartography organization on 1973 and the name changed to the Cartography and Cadastral organization.
In this time geodesy department also established that had geodesy, Photogrammetry, Cartography and printing section. Photogrammetry and printing affair start in 1966, and also others Geodetic, Photogrammetry and cartography Affaires basically with international standards start in 1973.
Remote sensing department established a branch of the Photogrammetry department in Cartography and Cadastral Institute organization in 1973, which was supported by USA. According some political changing after 1973 this coordination stopped.
But remote sensing program relation continued from UNDP (SCOP) with Cartography and Cadastral Organization, from international knowing and need of remote sensing technology and knowledge in 1988 the time of Afghan and ancient Russia (USSR) common space flight talked. And again Remote sensing section established with the name of research institute of space services. After becoming of administrative reform some changing become also in the Geodesy and cartography head office also, research institute of space services moved and established two new department Meta data and human resource.