Geodesy Background in Afghanistan
Although all of us know knowledge which study and measure the features of the earth is Geodesy and knowledge which study and measure the features of universe is Astronomy, both of them are assisting of each other and have basics and fundamental rule in the human civilization and development.
To day any civilization and development that are created in the world and any big advent that become in the space, pioneers are Geodesists and Astronomers that with any risk putted first leg and opened the way of work for the future.
Geodesy and Mapping are related to each other that we can call Geodesy back bon of Mapping. Therefore both of these phenomena in Afghanistan should be study and evaluate in tow period:
1- Before establishment of Geodesy and cartography head office (before 1958).
2- After establishment of Geodesy and Cartography head office (after 1958).
1- Before of year 1958
Generally before of that time for implementation of economic and military project were used, was maps 1 inch per 4 mile and 1 inch per 1 mile that were created by survey of India between years (1880 – 1950) and published . One part of these maps compiled according the Geodetic triangulation and remind were created without any Geodetic project. Area that were compiled by geodetic control points was laying along the general way, industrial and military centers of that time that had a little conformity with features, and others area was like a sketch, even far and difficult to pass area were not quite surveyed, and than completed by the interpolation and extrapolation system.
1-1- Survey coal mine of north
Year 1940 Afghanistan government invited a Surveyor and Geologist time for surveying area of the coal mine of North Afghanistan. Survey time established a triangulation network in one area of (6500 Km2) and based of this network compiled maps of 1/25000 scale of the area probably exist coal and the maps of 1/2000 scale the identified area of coal, with the system of plane table. Accuracy of lines was 1/4 thousand and points were created with Iron and concrete pillar in the area.
1-2- Mapping of Wadie Helmand
Year 1955 for better use and getting benefit from the lower part of Wadie Helmand, a contract singed for survey, construction dam and irrigation system with Morrison canwarson company. According to this contract, aerial photography with scale (1/40) thousand and (1/8) thousand, of the area of Wadie Helmand, Arghandab, Trnak, and Khashroad completed by Fiar Chilled company. Based on (17) astronomical control points established in the field, created maps of the region with scale (1/20) thousand and (1/8) thousand, and finished contraction program with them.
1-3- All over Afghanistan Mapping project
Geological Survey office established on year (1955) under organization frame of mine and Industry Ministry, which developed very soon. Geological survey organization for surveying of Afghanistan Mines felt the need of all over country maps. In this cause contract singed with Fiar Child and Tekhnoexport companies.
All Afghanistan Area divided in two big portions that north part with an area of (150000 Km2) with tekhnoexport and south part with area of (500000 Km2) with fiar Child companies contracted in year 1957.
Both companies finished aerial photography with scale (1/60) and (1/30) thousand during (1957 – 1958) years, and complete the processing affaires on their countries.
Because of the urgent project and high economic expenses, with out establishment of any first and second geodetic controlling network by classic Principe compiled and finished. So that a base line of Hirat selected as a coordinate system that accepted by both side, from that point they started establish of their controlling network, and measured it. Coordinate of that origin point determined exact by tekhnoexport with astronomical Principe, elevation of Batik sea level transferred from sex frontier pillar of Russia border, elevation compared with elevation point of cha man that has elevation from India and it show a differences of one meter . After that this origin point and base line of Hirat north and south turning over highferd ellipsoid and maps had been created and compiled with UTM projection.
A – Geodetic Specification of Mapping in north part of Afghanistan
Horizontal and vertical controlling network expand by traverse methods in this area. Length of this traverse network was 2400Km, by establishing 14 astronomical stations the traverse network checked. Base lines measurement accuracy in the network was around (1/170), that encounter to (3 and 4) degree accuracy. At the Badakhshan area elevation was brought from border pillars by barometer, and other necessary control points had been created by aerial triangulation method. Base maps of this area compiled by stereo topography system with scale (1/100) thousand and 40m contour line interval. After that maps of (1/50) and (1/250) thousand scale compiled by using base maps of (1/100) thousand.
B – Geodetic specification of mapping in south and center part of Afghanistan
Horizontal controlling network of this area was traletraton network that had 12 Shoran point (Astronomical Points) and 50 intersecting lines, two points was joint with Tekhnoexport network, Shoran network accuracy was around (1/60)thousand. Elevation controlling network was a 3 degree level that was done by (N3) leveling instrument. Permitted total error was (0.021*k) and distances between two benchmark was 3mile and between sub benchmark was 1mile, total length was 3300km with 14 lines.
Maps of this area was created from aerial photography by stereo topography system with scale (1/50) thousand and 50m contour interval. After that maps of scale (1/100) and (1/250) thousand compiled using (1/50) thousand base maps. AGCHO experts complete revision and putting names of maps during 8 year.
2 – Geodetic and mapping activities of Afghan Geodesy and cartography after 1958 year
After establishment of Afghan Geodesy and Cartography office, triangulation network also divided in two periods.
First Period between (1958 – 1972) years
According of the technology of that period triangulation network expand along the high way of country with rectangle and polygon shape, length of lines was (15 – 25) Km , that covered all ring road highway without a little area in Faryab province. This network never used for mapping.
Second period after (1972) year
This network with the shape of separate triangle with the length of lines (30 – 70)Km designed and a part of this project that cover 30% Afghanistan created. Using this network maps of (1/25) thousand Kabul, Parwan, Nangarhar, Laghman and Kandahar created. Maps of some area and some cities compiled with scale (1/10), (1/5), (1/2) thousand.
Coordinate origin of this network is placed on (Tapa kalay Ahmad Khan) Kabul that is build by expenses of millions dollar with high accuracy and international standard. Coordinate system in this network is Australian ellipsoid and projection is UTM.
A-Afghanistan elevation network expanded along the high way and main streets with length of 4 thousand km, cover high way that are joint with Porte and main cities.
B – Afghanistan gravimetry network
First degree gravimetry of Afghanistan is combining of 13 stations in the country air ports that 9 of them was measured norms and international standards, Kabul air port station is the origin of this network that in connected with Dehradon gravimetry station of India, average of measurement accuracy is (0.005mmgal). Second degree gravimetry network explored and some point are created. An area of 35 thousand km2 under the program of petroleum research in the north part of Afghanistan was completed with gravimetry measurements.
New strategy of Geodesy in Afghanistan
At the present situation Geodesy and Cartography head office has expert and professional engineers with modern digital instruments, and would like to perform short and long term geodetic affaires.
1- Establishment of eight permanent point of GPS course station at the eight province of Afghanistan, that it work that work 24 hour and we can use these points as a reference station. Each of these points covers an area with 200 Km radius. These reference pints will be able to cover all Afghanistan area with WGS 1984 Coordinate system and Ellipsoid. From these eight station points, three of them have been established and installed in Kabul, hirat and Mazar e sharif provinces, reference station points of Faryab, kandahar and badakhshan are under setup and installation and reference station points of Nimrooz and Ghazni have been surveyed and location are selected.
2- Establishment of first, second and third degree of new geodetic network with GPS and with WGS 1984 coordinate system and ellipsoid all over the country.
Completing of first and second degree elevation network and after expansion of third and fourth degree elevation network all over the country and connecting of this network with neighbor country elevation system.
3- Completing of previous grawimetry network and expansion to anther next steps.
4- Establishment of dynamic geodetic network to prevent big human died at the time of earth quake and landslide incidents.
First establishment should be at the active earth quake and fault area and than at the needed place of the country.
After establishment of Afghan Geodesy and Cartography office, triangulation network establishment divided in two periods.
1 - First Period between (1958 – 1972) years
According of the technology of that time triangulation network expand along the high way of country with rectangle and polygon shape, first class triangulation lines length was (15 – 25) Km , second class triangulation lines length was (10 – 15) Km that covered all ring road highway without a little area in Faryab province. Some sub network also expanded from Kabul to Torkham and from kandhar to Spin boldak. And the possible distances base lines also measured with Talorometer and range master instrument. The coordinate system is hayfard international 1924 and projection is UTM. This network never used for mapping.
2 - Second period after (1972) year
This network with the shape of separate triangle and the length of lines (30 – 70)Km designed and a part of this project that cover 30% Afghanistan created. Base lines has been measured by range master 8, at the end Laplace system observation has done, with creation of 500 ground control points that cover all Afghanistan except south west desert region that every each 100 Km there is a base line and Laplace observation control points. Coordinate system is Australian and projection is UTM.
Astronomy section and new datum creation
Astronomical datum established at the same time with Geodetic datum in the (Tape Qalai Ahmad Khan ) next to each other that is combine of three pillar that are; Doppler pillar, astronomy Pillar and seven meter tower reference station. Geodetic location of Doppler station in Kabul, Kandahar and Herat, determined by a USA company with the Space Geodesy system up to seven meter accuracy. After that a British company increase accuracy up to three meter. This company also create Doppler new station in seven air ports of the country.
Astronomy station of Kabul ( tape Qalai Ahmad Khan ), after continuously observation checked and calibrate with ( Bo Zariah observatory of Al jazzier country, that is one of the famous observatory in the world. And known as Afghanistan Astronomy datum. All Geodetic and astronomy measurement assign to reference station that is also one end of base line. Base line measurement has been done using instrument that working with laser waves and was calibrate with base line of Finland country, after observation and measurement accepted as Afghanistan reference and geodetic point. Before establishment of geodetic reference of Afghanistan , coordinate system of Afghanistan was hayfard international 1924 and projection was UTM and the reference point was (Herat North), that topographic maps of scale 1/50000 and 1/100000 and others scale completed with this coordinate system. But after establishment geodetic Datum of (Tape Qalai Ahmad Khan) and long time research that has been done by experts in the Prag university of Cheek country, the Australian ellipsoid with A=6378160 and F=1/298.25 parameter accepted for Afghanistan region.
Mentioned ellipsoid that is 49 m above of geoids surface and projection is UTM, accepted the reference of projected coordinate that 1/25000 and 1/10000 scale is completed with this system.
Elevation Network in Afghanistan
Transformation of elevation expanded to inside Afghanistan from boundaries pillars, number (1) and (1/21) of ancient Russia (USSR) that has elevation from Baltic ocean. Puller Number (1) is located in Hayratan Port and puller number (1/21) is located in Torghondee border of Herat.
Cartography and Geodesy started Leveling line observation in 1960, that first class level loop of Afghanistan is crossing Kabul, Ghazni, Qalat, Kandahar, Delarram, Shindand, Hirat, Maimana, Sheberghan, mazar-e – Sharif, Aibak, Pulekhomri, Salang, Jabulosaraj, Charikar cities and provinces.
Level open line that are expanded in difference direction in the country from level loop.
1- Jalal Abad – Asad Abad level line.
2- Pulkhomri – Kundoz – Sheerkhanbandar level line.
3- Kundoz – Taleqan – Badakhshan.
4- Kabul – Logar – Gardeez – Sharan – Ghazni level line.
5- Muqor – Nawa – Katawaz – sharan level line.
6- Kandahar – Spin boldak level line.
7- Delarram – Zaranj – Charborjak level line.
8- Hirat – Islam Qala level line.
9- Delarram – Farah livel line.
10- Kandahar – Terin Koth level line.
11- Hirat – TorGhondi level line.
12- Logar – Jaji – Said karam – Gardeez level line.
13- Talqan – Emam sahib – Shirkhan Bandar level line.
14- Kholm – Abdanmiralam – Kundoz level line.
15- Ghazni – nawor – Jaghori – Jandah level line.
16- Kundoz – Chardarah – Qalazal level line.
17- Kabul - Jalalabad – Torkham level line.
Previous first class leveling in Afghanistan that started from 1960 is 2084.6 km. new first class leveling that started from 1974 is 1148.4 km, new second class leveling is 1210.7 km. Total length of equilibrate leveling line is 443.74 km and the length of not equilibrate leveling line is 900 km. All equilibrate value of leveling points exist in geodetic data catalogue of Geodesy Department.
Gravimetry in Afghanistan
Gravimetry activities in Afghanistan first time started in 1963 at the north part of the country in one area of 30000 km2 in the maps of 1/200000 scale by Russia experts according the contract of Geological survey of mines ministry, that was for exploring under ground mines.
International Gravimetry committee that is in French country established 4 Gravimetry station in Kabul city year 1973, and also one Gravimetry office established under frame work of Geodesy department, purpose of this office was to done Gravimetry measurement to be use for Geodetic Affairs and determination of mines stock of different area in Afghanistan.
Gravimetry activities in Afghanistan
1 - To check and control real gravity of the earth, gravimetry observation by cooperation of united nation expert Mr. Shoran has been done three time between Kabul and Dehradun of India country.
2 – Construction of seventeen first class gravimetry Points in the provinces airports, that gravimetry observation has been done on fourteen of them, and observation data exist in Geodesy department.
3 – Creation of a National polygon of gravimetry essay polygon combine of seven points located in north Salang that all Gravimetry observation has been done.
4 – Creation of four essay base line of Asemahee mounting in the name of Geodesy cercal essay base line.
5 – Gravimetry obsevcation of six points of Qargha loop and basic benchmark points of Geodesy and Cartography office has been completed.
6 – Construction of 92 second class gravimetry points in the provinces.
7 – Determination of Gravimetry force with the help of NGA organization inside the Gravimetry laboratory of Geodesy and Cartography in year 2009.